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> Plasma Converter System Energy from Waste Issue: 2010-1 Section: Green energy

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Plasma Converter

Over the last 20 years, environmental pollution has been not only the result of natural causes such as volcanic eruptions, but mostly derived from human activities noxious wastes.

They are of two types of pollutants: biodegradable - which can be degraded by biological factors, but can become a problem as gathering solutions faster than the decay; capacity speed; non-degradable - which cannot be degraded by natural factors or their degradation process covers a very long time.

Plasma Conversion System, transforms (doesn’t burn) any waste, liquid, solid or gas into a gas called Plasma Converted Gas (PCG). The system follows all European standards on pollution and in terms of maintenance the costs are much lower than any presently existing technology of waste incineration.

The fourth state of matter, Plasma, is a gas which has been ionized so that the gas is actually a power driver.

Plasma converter runs in a continuous arc that generates luminescent energy that can produce temperatures up to 16648.8 °C. When this energy waste is subject to intense thermal energy inside the converter, excitation at the molecular level is so high that the material dissociates into elementary components, into atoms, which is the effect of pyrolysis.

The converter is an extremely robust system, computerized, easy to use operating at normal pressures, very safe and quiet. It is very important to know that the waste is not incinerated but decomposed, and dissociated at the molecular level (fig.3)

The converter is an extremely robust system, computerized, easy to use operating at normal pressures, very safe and quiet. It is very important to know that the waste is not incinerated but decomposed, and dissociated at the molecular level (fig.3)

The basic system of a plasma converter are:

  • input of waste (Pre-treatment)
  • cylinder where the pyrolysis occurs (Plasma furnace)
  • filtration system (Syngas)
  • computer control station,
  • power supply (energy production) (fig.2).

 

Molecular Dissociation

Molecular dissociation is beyond vaporization. Being something as disintegration.

When a substance undergoes molecular dissociation, it does not merely change state; it disintegrates. At that point, it is no longer it; component atoms and decimated molecules are all that remain.

Molecules break down in a process called molecular dissociation. When molecules are exposed to intense energy (plasma torch), the molecular bonds holding them together become excited and break apart. Leftovers are the elemental components of the molecules. Hazardous substances like cyanide, for example, end up with atoms of carbon and nitrogen. (fig.3)

Organic compounds are volatilized and transformed into a synthetic gas (syngas), if properly cleaned. can be used as fuel source.

Inorganic compounds are melted down and converted into a glassy- like substance (vitrified), that can contain metal among other inorganic matter (slag).

An important part of the plasma converter system is the treatment of gas being composed of six stages (fig.4, 5):

  • Cyclone separator for the removal of particles at high temperatures: in the initial step for gas treatment gas is cooled to about 1000 °C to 650 °C by direct injection of water with a conventional spray system. Cyclone removes particles which are then collected and returned to the plasma cylinder.
  • Quench (cooling gas with the recovery of heat) - gas is sprayed through a dryer to quickly reduce its temperature from 650 °C to 120 °C. The importance of this reduction in temperature is not to form dioxides and furans.
  • Thimble collection to remove particles: after passing the quench gas is breathed in pulse cartridge dust collecting a gas heater to prevent condensation. The unit is able to blow back solid collected particles to be reprocessed in plasma cylinder.
  • Selective catalytic reduction to remove NOx (NO, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide NO2)-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction). After exit from the dust, the gas is reheated to about 310 °C passing through catalytic filters, where present hydrogen gas reacts with NOx to form atmospheric nitrogen and water.
  • Cleaning column - to remove acids and volatile metals (mercury, arsenic, selenium) after leaving the selective catalytic reduction. Waste water does not require further filtering and treatment before it runs to the collecting canal, except when heavy metals are being processed. Approximately 75% of melted metal has to come back after being filtered by the system. Finally, an air turbine located at the exit pulls gas treatment system (PCG) of the entire system and keeps the slight negative pressure in the cylinder of plasma.

 

The main product of the plasma converter is PCG-Plasma Converted Gas, a synthetic gas that can be used as a chemical resource to produce polymers and other chemicals (fig.6). It also can be used as fuel to produce clean energy for heating and cooling systems, clean drinking water and to power fuel cells thus reducing fossil fuel consumption.

The gas, after manufacture, can be packed and transported by pipeline, as necessary.

The main aspects of the process (fig.5) that may recommend waste plasma conversion toward energy as a green system are:

  • hazardous waste (solid, liquid, mixed with mud deposits) can be processed cheaply and safely, without polluting gases, thus eliminating waste;
  • the system can generate a corrective approach for areas infested with various agents transforming them as to become suitable for housing, the solid waste volume reduction being approximately 300 to 1;
  • everything that is produced by PCS is perfectly biodegradable;
  • the system is controlled by computer, it is easy to use and operates at normal atmospheric pressure in a safe and quiet environment.

 

The filter system includes separation of hydrogen from PCG, Plasma Cell system, hydrogen can be used to produce electrical energy (fig.6), Even if the installed power has a maximum of 1.5 MW generators will operate only at half capacity to prolong their lifecycle. Hydrogen can also be used for fuel cells or for future plant-based fuel cell technology. Also, gas result can be used to produce ethanol.

Practically, Plasma converter transforms industrial and municipal waste into Green Energy, Pure Water and Electricity.

 

Bibliography

  • Electronics For You (www.efymag.com), February 2009
  • Circeo, Louis, Ph.d. The Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste as a Source of Renewable Energy Using Plasma Arc Technology. Presentation to the Renewable Energy Roundtable, Saint Petersburg Meeting of Nobel Prize Winners, Russian Academy of Sciences. June 16-21, 2003;
  • Circeo, Louis. Plasma Processing of MSW at Fossil Fuel Power Plants. Georgia Tech Research Institute.
  • Environmental Energy Resources, Ltd.
  • www.eer-pgm.com
  • Geoplasma LLC Responses to Questionnaire for Conversion Technology Suppliers. Los Angeles County Solid Waste Management Committee;

 

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