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> Nanotech The Present Issue: 2014-2 Section: 17-19

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Introduction

Nanotechnology is a technology that manipulates the properties and structures of materials. Nanotechnologies employed often have the width of a human hair, which ranges from about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology can be used in many fields: clothing, cosmetics, physics, chemistry, medicine, computer science. The burgeoning new field of nanotechnology, opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creates myriad new opportunities for advancing science. The universality of nanotechnology is applied to almost every face of modern life. Thanks to nanotechnologies, human life could change in a better way. The present study reports some nanotechnology applications used in present in modern fields like medicine, ecology, technology, materials and nutrition.

A very hopeful sector in the future of nanotechnologies is medicine. Thanks to this kind it is possible to make much easier diagnoses for doctors. Today, traditional treatments of cancer affect the whole body, harming it, and not just the tumoral cells, but with nanotechnology, nano-medicine can be direclty introduced in the affected area of the patient’s body, in order to not compromise other parts of the body not involved in the desease.

The researchers developed the “nanocomposites”, a set of nanoparticles composed of several elements that can solve the pollution problem. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has discovered, for example, that these nanocomposites can absorb the toxic water if their bases are composed of silicon. In order to remove the solvent called TCE (trichloroethene), nanoparticles, through a chemical reaction, are able to convert all the contamination and make it harmless. A method of deionization that uses electrodes composed of nanofibers, can remove the salt from the water: this method can use the drinking water as energy and thus reducing costs. This could be a solution to reduce the pollution of the entire ocean, which is now one of the biggest problems on the planet.Some scientists have developed a new technique for cooling computer chips, using carbon nanotubes. An experiment has been carried out where carbon nanotubes and metal surfaces were in contact, and it was discovered that flows between the two bodies is increased by six times. This means that the cooling and the efficiency of the pc is multiplied. The technique of use is made through liquid gases at low temperature which facilitates the manufacturing of covalent chemical bonds that will work with oxide-forming metals such as silicon and noble metals such as gold or copper.

Scientists are getting very good results in experimenting with new fabrics resistant to stains and water and strong acids. These tissues develop a special method called LBL, “layer-by-layer”. This method exploits the layers alternating positive and negative charges of materials that are held together by electrical charges. In this way, it is possible to use various goals depending on the use you intend to make. Furthermore, some laboratory tests have shown that this coating applied to cotton has been able to become impermeable to substances such as acids, bases and organic solvents.

Another feature of this tissue is the great strength it has. Some scientists have wanted to develop a way to stabilize these layers with UV light to form a coating that uses natural surface forces to repel water and other materials.Nanotechnology, as we have seen, is involved in all areas, including food. Researchers have begun to address this area for the potential applications in foods and nutraceuticals. These applications include new methods and mechanisms involved in the engineering of nonmaterials to target the delivery of bioactive compost and micronutrients. Biological molecule have been designed in the laboratory, with functions other than those they have in nature, opening up a new area of research and development. These technologies release efficiency of active ingredients compared to other traditional wraparound agents. This has allowed the development of nano-emulsions, liposomes, micelles, polymeric complexes led to improve the properties of the bioactive compounds protection, controlled delivery systems, food matrix integration and masking of undesired flavors.

 

Conclusion

Supporters of nanoscience and nanotechnology claim that this transformative field could radically alter fundamental aspects of our global society. If the research is organized in an effective way, the pursuit of these larger social and environmental goals could also help improve the conditions of the least-developed countries. Among all the benefits promised by nanoscience and nanotechnology, the potential to raise the quality of science and technology on a global scale may be the most important benefit of all.

 

Bibliography

  • David Rejeski, http://www.nanotechproject.org/news/archive/
  • nanotechnology_medicine_bioethics/ Todd Kuiken, Nanotechnology and Medicine,Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, Washington, DC, July 2 2007
  • Dan Hogan and Michele Hogan, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/
  • 2012/04/120425140407.htm Beyond stain-resistant: New fabric coating actively shrugs off gunk, April 25 2012
  • Madhu Lundquist, www.nanotech-now.com/current-uses.htm Current Nanotechnology Application, 22 May 2012
  • http://www.eurekalert.org/context.php?context=nano&show=essays K. Eric Drexler, The future of nanotechnology
  • https://www2.aus.edu/conferences/sharjah-nano/resources/Hassan_Science_Nano-art.pdf Mohamed HA Hassan, Small Things and Big Changes in the Developing World, July 1 2005
  • http://royalsociety.org/news/metro/nanotechnology/ T. E. Dorizinksi, Nanotechnology
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK32730/ Application of Nanotechnology to Food Products, National Academies Press (US), Washington (DC), December 10 2008
  • http://bionanotech.uniss.it/?p=1221 Water Pollution and Nanotechnology, Bionanotechnology, Laboratory of Sassari University, Sassari (IT), November 18 2011

 

Iconography

  • JimmyWales, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Comparison_of_nanomaterials_sizes.jpg, Sureshbup, St. Petersburg, Florida, Stati Uniti, 26 April 2014
  • http://scienceroll.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/bigstock-nanobots-7414004.jpg, Bertalan Mesko, Nanotechnology to be included in the medical curriculum, 3 January 2014
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/Colloidal_nanoparticle_of_lead_sulfide_%28selenide%29_with_complete_passivation.png, Zherebetskyy, Science 344, 1380 (2014)Nanoparticle,Wikipedia Foundation (San Francisco USA), 26 June 2014
  • http://www.daniblog.it/blogtech/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Types_of_Carbon_Nanotubes.png, Nanotubo di carbonio, Michael Ströck, Wikipedia Foundation (San Francisco USA), 7 June 2006
  • http://www.rezz.ch/uploads/1/1/4/6/11463028/3420794_orig.jpg, Protettivo nanotecnologico tessuti idro-oleorepellente e antimacchia, Firenze
  • http://worldfoodscience.com/sites/default/files/Nanotech-concerns-highlight-core-research-needs_medium_vga.jpg, Consumers International webinar: Nanotechnology and food safety, 9 November 2012
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Scientist_in_the_LCN_cleanroom_photolithography_lab.jpg, Talk:Cleanroom, University College London Faculty of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, Wikipedia Foundation (San Francisco USA), 26 June 2013