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Word fades, but writing remains says our ancestors. Writing is the most important event which helps to transfer the events in history to the present. Surely, what makes this formation is a pen.
Pen is sometimes a mediator heart and paper and sometimes a medium ends or starts a war.
It is pen that is an unique invent sharpener than a sword.
It is a faitful and suffering friend for a student.
We’ve also brought out an opinion that EPM wouldn’t be but for pencil. That is, but for pencil, it wouldn’t have been possible to transfer the former period’s data to the following period accuratly, it would be gain the concrete data and the resources we need to refer to about the History of Science and Technology which is the main concern of EPM articles.
Well, how was the pencil, the most important tool, which enables to transfer yesterday to today, found? How many stages did it get?
As far as we learnt from the history lessons and written sources; the first civilization who found writing, is Sumerians.
B.C. 6000 century, the iconographic writings accepted the first examles of writings were found in the remains in Mesopotomia where the civilization of Sumer and Akads were located. Thoso pictures writings were made with reed. In other words, according to the remains the first writing tool were reed.
They do their writings on the soft tablet by drawing straight lines with the reed they sharpened. This is the reason of our knowing the first writing is cuneiform. Maybe most of our friends suppose theese writings as cuneiform, but it was camed us cuneiform because of the straight of lines and its similarity with nail. But the writings were drowed by reeds.
Reed have used with doing small variation, development in world’s a lot of different centers such Rome and Egypt.
For example reed pencils were using widespread when first ink found. Romans added ink in their used reed.
Bird feathers storied to use writing tool after century reed had found. Tagle feather, owl feather, turkey feather, pereprine falcon feather such a birds feathers were using widespread but swan feather was valuable bird feather for it was finding difficulty.
Bird feathers which are appropriate for right handa re left wing feathers for their edificie is appropriate bend down to right hand. Left wing feathers ideals are left wing’s outer space first feathers.
While in films, actor or actress use down for writing without dropping ink, if is, in dead, a hand they without droppy ink for writers. And this shows one of the properties which shows how land using a down for writing. Altough there are some difficulties like this, not being found a they which doesn’t tear paper and is also drop , provided downs usage for long years. We said because gold wasn’t cheap enough to be written on so gold’s usage in writing wasn’t popular.
When we came to the 17th century, the graphite mine which caused to be invented pencils we use today was found. In England having found this mine the first tool which we can say it is a pencil was made by combining small-grafit pieces and wood pieces. However it wasn’t so easy to get this beautiful thing. Altough it wasn’t as expensive as gold it wasn’t so cheap to get for everybody.
The man started porcelein work who was Avusturian Josef Hardtmuth. He wanted to making beautiful drowing, an art. But the tools in the hands of his porcelain work didn’t make into drow wood and quality enough. In order to make softer drawings he tried to find out a new tool. At last he mixed graphite dust with clay. And he dunked this mixture into wax. By this way, he discovered something which can easily drow shape, on the lefs.
We see that , when people need, they can discover such beautiful things.
Thanks to Avustrian porcelainer, people met not only a cheap but also a easy writing tool.
Another benefit of the pencil is that it can be used easily when the pen frozen.
The new ways which appeared with the revolution of industry, affected the productivity of pencil. As from data the usage at iron was easy, the production of pencil was also made easy.
In 1884, Levis Edson Waterman developed a pencil that when the ink is being to filled, it doesn’t drip to paper and it easly reach the pen-nip.
This pencil is a pen as we use form today.
In 20th century, it has been pot easy by pressure that to put ink is ink chanber in pen. Again in 20. century’s half, changeable cartridge had been invented. But, pen isn’t use today ballpoint pen is being use by a lot of people.
It is nearly in the same priod when the ball-paint pen and fountain pen were discovered.(both of them im 19th century).
Moreover, ball paint pen had been discovered earlier but fountain pen surpassed it in the beginning.
Alonso Townsend Cross developed a pencil, which might be accepted as an anchestor of todays pen, and took its patent in 1878. even though, before this date, various fountain pens were discovered, the patent's name was Alonso Townsend Cross. But, in spite of patenting, this pen didn’t catch on!...
The kind of pen, the mass production of which had not been needed, has evolved into today’s candition in such way.
Macarian Journalist called Lazslo Josef Biro is the first one to develop the pen used in our daily life. He put of fort in developing the ink, which is used on newspapers and drying immediatly, into pen system. However this ink which is danger than normal ink didn’t turn out to be successful in pen. Thus, he come up with the setting a marble in pen’s mouth. By the time he set the marble he put to the desired result.
The plane sectory of that time contributed a big beal to be splead out Biro’s invention. Of course this didn’t happen way distrubuting the pens to people from the air. The pens which pilots’ use were fiiled with the air pressure on the ground. When the plane took off 2 km high the degrees air pressure caused to leak the ink and made dirty pilots’ clothes and they couldn’t write properly, so pilots’ prefered ballpoint pens to pens. After pilots the people all around the world started the use ballpoint pens commenly and today the ballpoint pens have become most use writing tools or reelenviremont.
In the time pencil’s – pen’s have left its place to computer slowly, we finish our writing, wishing your pencils to write good and beautiful things.