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2.Ways of getting infected with HIV
Important for prevention of HIV / AIDS is to know in which tissues of the human body the virus is and how infection can be transmitted from infected to healthy person.
Such risks there are in some actions, related to the servicing of the patient, in cosmetic manipulations (manicure, pedicure), in shaving etc., when are used contaminated instruments.A potential risk represents the donation of sperm. The infection can be transmitted also from infected mother to her child. Transmission of HIV in children has for a primary mechanism vertical path of infection-HIV seropositive mother - child. This most often happens just before ar during birth. These ways of transmission revealed the most endangered groups of people infected with AIDS: Gay and Bisexualists, prostituted persons, drug addicts and people with indiscriminated sex contacts. Risk contingents also are some foreigners who comes from countries with epidemic disease, in case they belong to groups at risk or have been in contact with persons at risk. Import of the infection can be achieved by its citizens resided in countries with epidemic of AIDS.
3.Clinical picture of the disease - classical form of AIDS
This will include infections by parasites, bacteria that in normal organism does not cause disease, but damaging in the immune system lead to other serious diseases-pneumonia, damage to the nervous system, heart, kidney,etc. (these infections are called opportunistic).
Virological studies of many research teams showed that CHIV is contained and can be isolated from: blood (serum and cell) semen swab from the vagina of a woman, spinal fluid, urine, secretions from rectum, brain tissue, saliva, tears, breast milk. This indicates that the virus is contained in almost all body fluids and in many organs and tissues.
But in the greatest quantity (concentration) CHIV is contained and can be isolated from blood (serum and cell) semen swab from the vagina of the woman and secretions from the rectum. This determines the pathways by which infection is transmitted.
Of the great importance of transmission of the infection is through blood. It is know that AIDS virus is found in large guantities in the blood of AIDS patients and in healthy virus carriers.
Therefore, contamination may occur when blood or blood product from an infected person come in healthy. In many countries the transmission of the infection through blood is carried in drug addicts who use intravenous drugs and contaminated with blood needles and syringes used by other drug addicts. Except in blood transfusions and blood products, there are other ways of transmission through blood.
Signs that characterised the affection of AIDS
It should be noted that not in all infeced by the AIDS virus is observed the disease. The first evidence of infection can be established only by laboratory methods. The most often within 2 weeks to 3 months (rarely later) after infection in the organism of a man are produced specific antibodies. Some infected person may spend long periods healthy outside without any signs of disease.
This conditon can last years. There are described some cases where from the time of infection to the disease have passed 7 or more years. In the classical form of HIV, (i.e fully developed form of HIV) most common are the signs of pneumonia with high fever and difficulty breathing. This pneumonia is the result of opporturistic infection caused most often by pnevmotsistis karinii.It may be manifestation of tuberculosis defeat. The affection of the lung is often around 75% of the cases.In some of the patients are observed signs of skin cancer - Kaposi's sarcoma. In most of the diseased are affected nervous system and particular the brain. Brain damage can be developed slowly, for years. More frequent signs of brain affection are: drowsiness, depression, memory lost, dementia, partial paralysis and others.In many infected people occurs and chronic diarrhea,weiht loss,fever of unknown origin. Althougt less frequently in patients with AIDS may be developed other infections, affecting mainly the digestive and other body systems. Lymph nodes in neck, armpits, elbow and other are swollen, painless. In-common signs than swollen lymph nodes are: reduction of weight, fever, night sweating, fatigue, diarrhea, skin rash, enlarged spleen.