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> Intelligence and Intelligent Issue: 2007-1 Section: Science



People have made an effort to untie the limitless power of man’s intelligence for ceturies. Capacity of people’s intelligence have been an investigation subject for scientists.

They are curious about what the intelligence had done and what it can do.

So why what is the intelligence working better than the best machine?

How does it work and how does it develop? What sorts of intelligence are there?

There are a lot of definitions of intelligence but there isn’t a certain one.

The most acceptable of them is the ability of establishing relation between abstract and concrete object with the help of concepts and perception; abstract thinking, judging and using the mental treatment cordantly.

Although it is the general definition of mental; there are a lot of different definitions made by various scientists.

One of them is made by Prof. Howard Gardner.

Prof. Gardner has a different point of view about the intelligence and he is adopting a different definition of intelligence.

Intelligence according to Gardner is the whole ability which is proper to each person with the aim of living in changing world and adapting to change. It’s the capacity of being beneficial for our society. Each person have the ability of solving problems, learning in a different way and communicating with their intelligence.

As far as these definitions are concerned we can say that:

Intelligence is an abstract object, there is no connection between intelligence and skull.

It’s necessary being skillful for being intelligent.

It’s special for every person and there is a connection between ability and intelligence.

After defining intelligence, scientists are curious about its biological base.

To understand this, it is necessary to take into consideration the relation of brain and intelligence.

There is a close relation between brain and intelligence.

It is accepted that intelligence is centered in the brain.

There are 10 billions cells in a person’s brain. Each cell has a connection with the all other cells.

Some scientists hold certain part of responsibility for certain work.

But famous neurologist Karl Pribram attains this results in his theory of hologram:

The brain doesn’t classify the information, information is complex.

The brain enrolls the information as a wave.

The brain organizes the information according to time and place.

If so, what are the connections between intelligence, eye and environment?

How do age and environment effect the intelligence? Now, here are some answers:


Development of intelligence as a function of age:

Intelligence enrols much development in the first 10 years of life.

Much more development is seen in the first 2 years of this period.

Thinking with symbols starts at the age of 11.

In spite of the decrease in the development of intelligence after the age of 12, it still goes on.

The highest level of decelopment occurs between the ages 14 and 18.

Mental power is fixed until a person is 30 years old.

After 30, memory grows stronger, while learning becomes more difficult.


Development of intelligence according to environment

Environment has got a great effect on intelligence.

According to the investigations done up to now, everyone is born with equal level of intelligence.

It is proved that the most important subject which effects the intelligence is environment.

Social situation, economical conditions, educational conditions are thought as environmental factors.

For instance, if a person wear glove when she/he is a baby his/her intelligence is negatively affected by this.

The more single spawn twins grow up in different environment, the more different intelligence level they acquire.

According to statistics, parent house effects mental development.

An investigation was done in a school in which there were students from different families who had different level of education.

The results showed that the students coming from high-educated families were more succesfull than the others.

The investigations performed from 1700 to 1910 proved that 83 % of intelligent people are in upper classes and only 17 % of them are in lower classes.

Children who were afraid of their environmetnt got lower marks in their intelligence tests.

There are 20 points between the top class and the lower class.

Thanks to the verbal part of the intelligence tests people who have higher level of education got higher marks in the tests.

Another factor affecting intelligence is heredity.

The relation between heredity and intelligence can be examined seperately.

The intelligence in genetic such as many physical factors.

The level of intelligence of the people who are adopted were compared with their own parents and their step parents.

It wasseen that the level of adopted people’s intelligence are more similar to their own parents that their step parents.

We can conclude that there is a great relationship between intelligence and heredity.


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